DATABASE OF EMPLOYEE OWNERSHIP IN EUROPEAN COMPANIES
The database of employee ownership in large European
companies gathers all detailed information about
employee ownership and employee share plans in
each of all largest European companies. The database
is available for research work and analysis. More
information about use
The first idea for such a database was tested
in 2005. Then, a comprehensive database was set
up in 2006, thanks to the support of the European
Commission – DG Employment and Social Affairs
and a first presentation was made during the Sixth
European Meeting of Employee Ownership in December
2006. Finally, the database was fully completed
and updated for years 2007, 2008 and 2009.
From time to time within the last 20 years, some
European reports gave information about employee
ownership and its development across Europe. The
most important reports were: PEPPER I Report in
year 1991, PEPPER II Report in year 1996 and
a Report named "Recent trends in employee
financial participation in the European Union"
by Professor Erik Poutsma in 2001. At this time,
these reports were practically the only source
of information regarding the extent of employee
ownership in the European Union. However, they
were based on partial information (mainly enquiries)
which was not made available before a very long
delay. For instance, the 2001 Report was "based
on the findings of the 1996 EPOC survey (Employee
Direct Participation in Organisational Change),
conducted on behalf of the [Dublin] Foundation."
Finally, we didn't have relevant information for
all countries of the European Union (for instance,
the 2001 Report gave information about 10 countries,
no more). The need for better and more recent
information was crucial. On the one hand, we knew
that employee ownership was developing. However,
it was not possible to obtain timely information...
We thought that probably a hiatus was growing
between companies and practitioners on the one
hand, and social and political actors on the other
hand, presenting an incorrect picture of the whole
issue. For this reason the European Federation
of Employee Share Ownership (EFES) established
this new database and the "Annual Economic
Survey of Employee Ownership in European Countries".
It is based on information pertaining to each
of all the large European companies – which also
means similar information for each of all European
countries (in fact, at this stage, all 27 countries
of the European countries, plus Norway and Switzerland).
Furthermore, it is based on information produced
by companies themselves in Annual Reports – this
means timely information and of high quality.
The database gathers all detailed information
about employee ownership and employee share plans
in some 3.000 European companies. It can be useful
for both macro- or microeconomic research. For
the 2009 Economic Survey, we limit ourselves to
a selection of 2.475 largest European companies.
This selection of 2.475 European groups includes:
- All listed groups whose market capitalisation
was 200 million Euro and more in May 2006, 2007,
2008 or 2009. It means that the survey involves
all largest European groups, without any exception.
- Non-listed groups whose employees own 50%
or more of the company, when employing 100 persons
and more. We can assume that most of such non-listed
European groups are included in our selection.
However, this could not be considered as an exhaustive
list. It is obvious that information is much more
accurate and more available for listed companies
than for non-listed ones. Such non-listed companies
are mostly workers' cooperatives.
In 2009, 2.215 listed companies belong to the
survey, together with 260 non-listed companies.
Altogether, they employed 33.4 million people,
not far from 30% of all European employees. Non-listed
companies are mainly 172 workers' cooperatives.
Reports are a good source of information about
employee share ownership in large European companies,
particularly the listed ones. International Financial
Reporting Standards are more and more effective
and the quality of information is increasing.
Most large European companies divulge good information
or even full detailed information regarding top
executives: Individual remuneration, shareholdings,
share grants, stock options granted or exercised,
etc. Nearly all large European companies divulge
considerable information regarding employees and
employee share plans: When did they launch their
first plan? Which plans they launched or stopped
of reviewed, year after year. Which employees
were benefiting of those plans: Categories, numbers.
How many shares were granted or sold to employees,
how many stock options were granted or exercised…
Finally, many large European companies divulge
information about the number of employee shareholders
(or members of workers' cooperatives).
is the detailed table of European companies in
the 2009 Economic Survey: